1981 • 421 Pages • 4.55 MB • English

Posted April 14, 2020 • Uploaded
by lewis19

PREVIEW PDF

Page 1

Page 2

The Newtonian revolution

Page 3

Page 4

The Newtonian revolution With illustrations of the transformation of scientific ideas I. BERNARD COHEN Harvard University CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge London New York New Rochelle Melbourne Sydney

Page 5

Published by the Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP 32 East 57th Street, New York, NY 10022, USA 296 Beaconsfield Parade, Middle Park, Melbourne 3206, Australia © Cambridge University Press 1980 First published 1980 First paperback edition 1983 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Cohen, I Bernard, 1914- The Newtonian revolution. 1. Physics-History. 2. Science-History. 3. Newton, Sir Isaac, 1642-1727. Principia. I. Title. QC7.C66 509 79-18637 ISBN 0-521-22964-2 hard covers ISBN 0-521-27380-3 paperback Transferred to digital printing 2002

Page 6

To W. Sidney Allen (Cambridge) Marshall Clagett (Princeton) Tullio Gregory (Rome) and my colleagues Erwin N. Hiebert A. I. Sabra

Page 7

Page 8

CONTENTS Preface page ix PART ONE: THE NEWTONIAN REVOLUTION AND THE NEWTONIAN STYLE 1 The Newtonian revolution in science 3 1.1. Some basic features of the Scientific Revolution 3 1.2. A Newtonian revolution in science: the varieties of Newtonian science 9 1.3. Mathematics in the new science (1): a world of numbers 17 1.4. Mathematics in the new science (2): exact laws of nature and the hierarchy of causes 21 1.5. Causal mathematical science in the Scientific Revolution 33 2 Revolution in science and the Newtonian revolution as historical concepts 39 2.1. The concept of revolution 39 2.2. The introduction of the concept of revolution to describe scientific progres 42 2.3. The Newtonian revolution in the sciences 49 3 The Newtonian revolution and the Newtonian style 52 3.1. Some basic features of Newtonian exact science: mathematics and the disciplined creative imagination 52 3.2. Mathematics and physical reality in Newton's exact science 61 3.3. Newton's use of imagined systems and mathematical constructs in the Principia 68 3.4. Gravitation and attraction: Huygens's reaction to the Principia 79 3.5. Newton's path from imagined systems or constructs and mathematical principles to natural philosophy: the System of the World 83

Page 9

Contents viii Supplement to 3.5: Newton's first version of his System of the World and his "mathematical way" in fact and fiction 93 3.6. Mathematical systems or constructs and the review of the Principia in the Journal des Scavans 96 3.7. New ton's three-phase procedure in action: Newton's f constructs compared to Descartes' s models and to those in use today 9 3.8. Newton's third phase and its sequel: the cause of gravitation 109 3.9. The Newtonian revolution as seen by some of Newton's successors: Baily, Maupertuis, Clairaut 120 3.10. The Newtonian revolution in the perspective of history 127 Supplement to 3.10: Newtonian style or Galilean style 132 3.11. Optics and the Newtonian style 133 3.12 The ongoing Newtonian revolution and the Newtonian style: mathematics and experience 141 P A R T T W O : T R A N S F O R M A T I O N S OF S C I E N T I F I C IDEAS 4 The transformation of scientific ideas 157 4.1. A Newtonian synthesis? 157 4.2. Transformations of scientific ideas 162 4.3. Some examples of the transformation of scientific ideas: Darwin and intraspecific competition, Franklin and the electrical fluid 166 4.4. Some transformations of ideas by Newton, primarily the transformation of impulsive forces into continually acting forces and the formulation of Newton's third law 171 4.5. Newtonian inertia as an example of successive transformations 182 4.6. Some general aspects of transformations 194 4.7. The transformation of experience 203 4.8. The uniqueness of scientific innovation: Freud on originality 216 4.9 Transformations and scientific revolutions 218 5 Newton and Kepler's laws: stages of transformation leading toward universal gravitation 222 5.1. Kepler's laws and Newtonian principles 222 5.2. The status of Kepler's laws in Newton's day 224 5.3. Newton's early thoughts on orbital motion and Kepler's third law 29 Supplement to 5.3. An early computation of the moon's 'endeavour of receding and a planetary inverse-square law 238

Page 10

Contents ix 5.4. Newton and dynamical astronomy in the years before 1684: correspondence with Hooke in 1679-1680 241 5.5. The Newtonian discovery of the dynamical significance of Kepler*s area law: the concept of force 248 5.6. From Kepler's laws to universal gravitation 258 5.7. The role of mass in Newtonian celestial mechanics 271 5.8. Kepler's laws, the motion of the moon, the Principia, and the Newtonian Scientific Revolution 273 Supplement: History of the concept of transformation: a personal acount 280 Notes 290 Bibliography 361 Index 397

The Newtonian revolution: With illustrations of the transformation of scientific ideas

1983 • 421 Pages • 4.94 MB

SCIENTIFIC TRANSFORMATIONS: A PHILOSOPHICAL AND HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF ...

2017 • 98 Pages • 888 KB

The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations

2013 • 256 Pages • 18.32 MB

The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations

2012 • 335 Pages • 30.85 MB

The Culture of revolution: Revolutionary transformation in Iran

2015 • 128 Pages • 600 KB

Gehennical Fire: The Lives of George Starkey, an American Alchemist in the Scientific Revolution

1994 • 193 Pages • 9.98 MB

Administrator Handbook with Descriptions and Illustrations

2008 • 242 Pages • 5.87 MB

The Industrial Revolution, Modern Economy, and the Transformation of American Lives

2004 • 84 Pages • 7.17 MB

The Palgrave Handbook of Social Movements, Revolution, and Social Transformation

2019 • 485 Pages • 5.42 MB

Solar revolution: the economic transformation of the global energy industry

2006 • 255 Pages • 4.63 MB

Solar Revolution: The Economic Transformation of the Global Energy Industry

2006 • 255 Pages • 2.6 MB

Instrumental Traditions and Theories of Light: The Uses of Instruments in the Optical Revolution

2000 • 229 Pages • 11.28 MB

A Revolution Down on the Farm: The Transformation of American Agriculture since 1929 (None)

2008 • 242 Pages • 1.78 MB

Max Planck Institute for the History of Science transformation of scientific knowledge in Biology

2010 • 92 Pages • 9.62 MB

The march of time : evolving conceptions of time in the light of scientific discoveries

2013 • 289 Pages • 8.47 MB

The March of Time: Evolving Conceptions of Time in the Light of Scientific Discoveries

2013 • 289 Pages • 6.35 MB